by Lindy Davies
Although the idea of value was a very important and contentious topic in the development of political economy, modern-day mainstream economics has little to say about it. One of today's most influential textbooks, for example, Economics by Samuelson and Nordhaus, does not trouble to define "value" at all -- doesn't even mention it in its index. On the other hand, the concept of "price" is extensively explored. This represents the shift from a "normative" science of political economy, which seeks to design and build a just society, to a "positive" study of economics, which seeks to analyze facts and behavior, avoiding the notions of "ought" and "should".
However, very few people are content with the present state of the "body economic". All manner of "oughts" and "shoulds" are constantly being debated. In our attempt to evaluate them, it will be helpful for our modern study of political economy to turn once more to the notion of value.
The major debate about value has always been about whether it inherent in things, or is a function of human desires. Plato regarded value as inherent in a commodity, but Aristotle attributed it to a commodity's utility, and he said the standard of value lies in wants. Thus the field was divided, ever since, between the "left" and the "right".
The Labor TheoryThe "labor theory of value" -- the idea that the value of a thing is a function of the labor expended in creating it -- was a tenet of the classical economists, especially David Ricardo. It was Karl Marx, however, who most thoroughly developed the theory, and made it influential. According to Marx, the value of a commodity tends to be the "amount of labor time socially necessary" to produce it. This is most clearly seen in the mode of production called capitalism, under which commodities are produced, by unskilled laborers, for sale in the market. The laborers exchange their labor time for wages, and the "capitalists" own both the means of production and the products.
What does "socially necessary" mean? It is defined as the amount of labor required to produce a thing under the normal conditions of production at a given time. In the capitalist mode of production, the "labor value" of a thing is made up of three parts: Constant capital (the equipment and location needed) Variable capital (the workers' wages) and Surplus value (the parasitical "cut" taken by the Capitalist class). All of the items in turn that go into the category of Constant capital (commodities themselves, such as a truck, a printing press or a factory) likewise have a labor value composed of these three elements, as does every single part that comprises each capital good. (If you think for a moment, you’ll realize the mind-bending complexity of these calculations.)
Under capitalism, there exists at any given time a general rate of profit -- which is simply an average of all the rates of profit in the various micro-markets. If the rate of profit in the market for a certain commodity equals the general rate of profit, then the surplus value of that commodity equals its profit to the capitalist, and its market price tends to equal its labor value. Of course, some commodities bring higher- or lower-than-average profits. In such cases, the commodity's labor value will not match its "price of production" -- and comparing the two will be helpful to the economic planner (who will, once capitalism is superseded, have to determine optimum production levels, without the helpful feedback of prices).
According to Marxist analysis, capitalists invest in production in order to collect surplus value. However, competition for market share will put a downward pressure on profits. To keep their profits up, capitalists will have to reduce wages (which will, in turn, reduce demand for commodities, leading to "overproduction" and depressions). The deterioration of conditions for workers will inflame class antagonism and lead to revolution. Then, the workers themselves, coming together to seize the means of production, will use the efficiency of modern industrial production for their own benefit (the "dictatorship of the proletariat").
The division of "labor value" into its three components gives us a glimpse of how a socialist economy could ever hope to function efficiently. Surplus value is merely the value of exploitation in a capitalist society; it is over and above the costs of Labor (Variable capital), and Land + Capital (Constant capital). If -- according to Marxist theory-- this exploitative surcharge were not imposed on the cost of every commodity produced, there would be a vast fund available for raising wages, providing social services, and "scientifically planning" an efficient socialist economy.
However, under the capitalist mode of production, decisions about "what?" "how many?" and "for whom?" are made with the invaluable aid of the invisible hand of a (more or less) free market. The market, though, is precisely what leads to surplus value and (to Marxists) all the structural failings of capitalism. Under the next phase of history -- socialism -- allocation decisions would not be made by the "higgling of the market", but by some form of objective planning. This is where the labor theory of value comes in very handy.
If value is not inherent in the commodity, but is a subjective determination of the buyer(s), then socialist "scientific planning" has no basis. For an efficient planned economy to be possible at all, value must be inherent in things. If the amount of labor embodied in a thing is a quantity that can be observed and measured, then it becomes possible for "scientific planning" to achieve efficient production patterns.
Marxist theory, then, in its requirement that class struggle lead society past capitalism into a socialistic mode of production, depends on a labor theory of value.
The Subjective TheoryThe other major contender for a modern theory of value is the Austrian theory, which traces its roots to Principles of Economics by Carl Menger. It tells us that value is subjective. It has nothing to do with anything inherent in the thing being valued, and therefore can have no relation to any amount of labor that went into it. It is simply a matter of how much each individual wants each thing.
To Austrian economists, if a glass of water is sold for a million dollars to someone who is dying of thirst, then, by golly, that's its value. A more conventional view would hold that, because of special circumstances, the glass was sold for more than its market value. But Austrian theory holds that there is no such thing as the "market value" of a good; value is revealed in particular transactions. One could compute an average of the various observed prices for which a good has sold, but that can only lead to an approximation of the thing's value. For Austrian theorists, "market value" is a meaningless concept.
Why is that important? Because if there is such a thing as "market value", then it becomes possible for things to be sold for more (or less) than their market value -- in other words, it becomes possible for markets to fail. Monopoly, or subsidy, or political manipulation, might end up allowing sellers to pocket the gleanings of "market failure", enriching themselves at the expense of the community. This, then, would lead to various kinds of interventions in the free market, to remove the unfairness of "market failures". (To Marxists, remember, the market economy is inherently a failure...)
In Austrian theory, this interventionism represents the very worst kind of circular reasoning. In order to correct supposed imperfections in the market allowing some "monopolists" to capitalize on "market failure", government imposes restrictions on free-market behavior! (Free-market economists tend to believe that monopolies, far from being parasitical, benefit society by affording innovators the extra capital they need to create the means for industrial progress.)
If "market failure" exists at all, Austrian economists see it as a conflict between individuals or groups in their plans to use certain scarce resources. Efficient resolutions to these conflicts can be negotiated between the interested parties -- but not if the resources are removed from the market process by confiscation or regulation.
This gets us back to the question of why value theory is important: If the value of a commodity is inherent, or socially-created in some way, then it would be possible for it to have a "true" value that is different from what it exchanges for in any particular transaction. This would open the door to intervention -- to the temptation to remove things from that free interplay of individual desires, and individual plans for satisfying them, that constitute economic activity.
So, in Austrian theory there is no "overall economy" apart from individual transactions. This leads us to a political economy in which everything must be made private property if it possibly can be. If there is no "overall economy", then the community (or its representative) has no right to interfere in individual transactions. If anything that could be held privately is, instead, held communally by the coercive power of the state, then the free interplay of desires and plans is restricted; economic activity and freedom are retarded.
Doesn't this seem to be a hard-hearted view of things? Perhaps. But Austrian theory does not hold that ethical concerns have no place in social policy -- only that they have no place in economic theory. Society might decide, out of some ethical or otherwise over-arching social concern, to communalize certain assets. Yet by doing so it would always limit human freedom. In the Austrian view of things, there is an inevitable trade-off between individual freedom and government intervention.
The Problem with LandIt's interesting to note that each of these "competing" theories of value encounters a pretty serious stumbling block when it comes to the question of land. Marxist theory accounts for the value of land as part of the "Constant capital" that goes into the production of commodities. Land itself isn't produced by labor, of course -- so it can only acquire value when labor is applied to it in some way. This is reminiscent of J. S. Mill's justification for property in land, which Henry George critiques in The Science of Political Economy. Land can become private property, according to Mill, when (and because) it is improved. Under the Labor Theory, that is also why it acquires value. However, it is evident that the value of improvements can easily be separated from the value of raw land, and that raw land does indeed have value. This is, of course, vitally important to the capitalist economy -- for we see huge amounts of value tied up in urban locations that stand completely idle, with no labor applied to them at all, sometimes for decades.
Austrian theorists also get caught in a vicious circle when it comes to land. This is not because land value is not subjective, measuring the land's utility to the buyer; indeed it is. However, Austrian theory holds that unrestricted privatization leads to efficient allocation and promotes human freedom. This certainly seems to be true in the case of the products of labor -- but it is clearly untrue in the case of land. Although some still try to justify it, using exotic interpretations of allocative efficiency, the evidence is overwhelming that private collection of land rent leads to economic dysfunction. (Public confiscation of the legitimate products of labor and capital does, too -- but free-market theorists are eager to agree with that.)
George's Great ReconciliationOne of Henry George's most powerful attributes as a social philosopher is his unswerving faith that science, if it is correctly based on natural law, cannot lead society to violence or decay. On the one hand, we have a Labor Theory of Value. Reasoning logically therefrom, we determine that justice can only be secured by removing the great vitality that society gains from the free market. On the other hand, we have a Subjective Theory of Value, which leads us to a "best of all possible worlds" in which our access to the natural opportunities, which all of us need to sustain life, must be purchased from private owners, for the sake of "freedom"!
George examined the theory that value depends on the labor embodied in a thing, and found it to lack explanatory power; simple observation showed that value is not inherent, but a function of the buyers' desires. However, simple observation also demonstrated that private ownership of everything -- whether or not it is a product of human labor -- leads neither to justice nor efficiency. He managed cut through this dilemma by introducing the concept of "value from obligation". George saw that the amount of value is subjective -- determined by nothing more than the "higgling of the market". However, the source of value is not subjective! It depends on one all-important objective quality of a thing: whether it was or was not produced by human labor.
This distinction means nothing to the individual; land, stocks, money or physical wealth all have the same kind of value to us, as individuals. A political economy that sees the aggregate as nothing more than the sum of all individual transactions and values would, likewise, see no importance in the distinction between value from production and value from obligation.
Henry George showed that labor is not the source of all value -- but it is the source of some value: the value that comes from production. Furthermore he demonstrated that the amount of value a commodity has is subjective, bearing no relation whatever to that value's source. With this firm theoretical foundation, he could confidently build an economic theory that could reconcile freedom and justice, proving his contention (which he stated in Progress and Poverty) that "justice is the highest and truest expediency".